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Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan

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LGBT themes in mythology occur in mythologies and religious narratives that include stories of romantic affection or sexuality between figures of the same sex or that feature divine Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan that result in changes in gender.

These myths are forms of LGBT lesbiangaybisexualtransgender expression, and modern conceptions of sexuality and gender have been applied to them. Many mythologies ascribe homosexuality and gender fluidity in humans to the action of gods or of other supernatural interventions.

The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has grown since the end of the twentieth century. The status of mythology varies by culture.

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Myths are generally believed to be literally true within the society that created them and deemed erroneous or fictitious elsewhere. Cultures may regard myths as containing psychological or Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan truths. Myths have been used to explain and validate the social institutions of a particular culture, [5] as well as to educate the members of that culture.

This societal role has been posited for stories that included same-sex love, which educate people as to the correct attitude to adopt toward same-sex sexual activity and gender constructions.

Since the beginning of recorded history and in a multitude of cultures, Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan, folklore and sacred texts have incorporated themes of same-sex eroticism and gender identity. Individual myths have been denoted "queer" for rejecting an heteronormative and binary view of gender. These have been criticised for ignoring cultural context or mis-applying modern or Western preconceptions, [7] for example in assuming that Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan means only avoiding penetration or reproductive sex hence allowing homoerotic sexwhile ignoring the widespread beliefs in the spiritual potency of semen that mandate an avoidance of all sex.

The presence of LGBT themes in Western mythologies has long been recognised, and the subject of intense study. The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has been growing since the end of the twentieth century. Many mythologies ascribe homosexuality and gender variance in humans to the action of gods or other supernatural interventions. This include myths in which gods teach people about same-sex sexual practices by example, as in Aztec or Hawaiian mythology [8] or myths that explain the cause for transgenderism or homosexuality, such as the story in which Prometheus accidentally creates some people with the wrong genitalia while drunk, or instances of reincarnation or Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan by a spirit of the opposite gender in Voodoo.

It is common in polytheistic mythologies to find characters that can change gender, or have aspects of both male and female genders at the same time. Sexual activity with both genders is also common within such pantheons, and is compared to modern bisexuality or pansexuality.

Greek mythology features male same-sex love in many of the constituent myths. These myths have been described as being crucially influential on Western LGBT literature, with the original myths being constantly re-published and re-written, and the relationships and characters serving as icons.

The love goddess Aphrodite and gods in her retinue, such as the Erotes: ErosHimeros and Pothos are sometimes considered patrons of homosexual love between males.

In Ovid 's Metamorphosis Iphis has a sex change. He was originally known as Caenis, daughter of Atrax. The sagas in the Old Norse language include no stories of gay or lesbian relationships, nor direct reference to LGBT characters, but they do contain several instances of revenge enacted by men accused of being a passive partner in intercourse, which was considered "unmanly" behavior and thus a threat to a man's reputation as a leader or warrior.

In spite of this, it has been suggested that Freyra Norse god of fertility, may have been worshiped by a group of homosexual or effeminate priests, as suggested by Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum.

In addition, some of the Norse gods were capable of changing sex at will, for example Lokithe trickster godfrequently disguised himself as a woman. Comparison of a man to a child-bearing woman was a common insult in Scandinavia, and some myths say that Loki is bisexual.

Odin was known to use magic only available to women and once seduced the goddess Rind in the guise of a leech woman. In Celtic mythologyno direct representation of gay or lesbian relationships exist. Gwydion and Gilfaethwy sneak back to Math's court where Gilfaethwy rapes Goewin. When Math hears of this, he turns his nephews into a series of mated pairs of animals; Gwydion becomes a stag for a year, then a sow and finally a wolf.

Gilfaethwy becomes a hind deer, a boar and a she-wolf. Each year they must mate and produce an offspring which is sent to Math: HyddwnHychddwn and Bleiddwn ; after three years Math releases his nephews from their punishment. Chinese mythology has been described as "rich in stories about homosexuality".

These myths are greatly influenced by religious beliefsparticularly Taoist and Confucianand later incorporated Buddhist teachings. The pre-Confucian and pre-Taoist tradition of China was predominately shamanistic. Male same-sex love was believed to have originated in the mythical south, thus homosexuality is sometimes still called "Southern wind". From this period, numerous spirits or deities were associated with homosexuality, Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan and transgenderism.

Homosexual encounters are common in Chinese folk stories. The animal spirits or fairies often choose same-sex partners, usually young men or boys.

Chinese dragons "consistently enjoy[s] sexual relationships with older men", one example being in the tale of "Old Farmer and a Dragon", in which a sixty-year-old farmer is forcibly sodomised by a passing dragon, resulting in wounds from penetration and bites that require medical attention. Despite the later literature of some Taoist schools disapproval of homosexuality, [54] [55] Tu Er Shen is a deity in Chinese folklore who manages the love and sex between homosexual men.

His name literally means " rabbit deity". One day Hu Tianbao was caught peeping on the inspector, at which point he confessed his reluctant affections for the other man. The imperial inspector had Hu Tianbao sentenced to death by beating.

Since his crime was one of love, underworld officials decided to right the injustice by delegating Hu Tianbao as the god and safeguarder of homosexual affections. For thousands of years, male homosexuality was referred to in literature by alluding to two semi-legendary figures from the early Zhou Dynasty.

The first was Mizi Xia and the half-eaten peach Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan he shared with his lover, the actual historical figure, Duke Ling of Wei. The second was Lord Long Yangwho convinced an unnamed King of Wei to remain faithful to him by comparing himself to a small fish which the King might throw back Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan a larger fish came along. While both Mizi Xia and Lord Long Yang may have actually existed, nothing is known about them beyond their defining stories, and their presence in Chinese literature was very much that of legendary characters who served as archetypes of homosexual love.

According to Japanese folklore and mythologyhomosexuality was introduced into the world by Shinu No Hafuri and his lover Ama No Hafuri. These were servants of a primordial goddess, possibly the sun goddess Amaterasu.

LGBT themes in mythology occur...

Upon the death of Shinu, Ama committed suicide from grief, and the couple were buried together in the same grave. In another tale, Amaterasu retreats from conflict with her brother Susanoo into a cavedepriving the Earth of sunlight and life.

In order to coax Amaterasu from the cave, the deity of humour and dance, Ame No Uzumeperforms a bawdy sexual dance that involved exposing her breast and vulva, and inviting Amaterasu to admire them. On Amaterasu's stepping out of the cave, the transgender kami Ishi Kori Dome held up a magical mirror, and the combination of the dance and her reflection fascinate Amaterasu so Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan that she does not notice other spirits closing the cave entrance behind her.

Shinto gods are involved in all aspects of life, including the practice of shudo traditional pederasty. Other kami associated with same-sex love or gender variance include: Kitsune sometimes disguise themselves as women, independent of their true gender, in order to trick human men into sexual relations with them. Hindu mythology has many examples of deities changing gender, manifesting as different genders at different times, or combining to form androgynous or hermaphroditic beings.

Gods change sex or manifest as an Avatar of the opposite sex "Norse paganism and homosexuality in japan" order to facilitate sexual congress. Hindu mythology contains numerous incidents where sexual interactions serve a non-sexual, sacred purpose; in some cases, these are same-sex interactions.

Sometimes the gods condemn these interactions but at other times they occur with their blessing.

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