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Although the influence of Persian civilization upon that of northern India under the sultans of Delhi has long been treated as a foregone conclusion, attempts to identify the extent of the processes by which that influence was transmitted involve the historian in a web of hypotheses and generalizations for the historiography of the sultanate, see Hardy, ; Rashid; Hasan; Sarkar; Nizami, This is hardly a satisfactory model for the complicated process by which people of one culture interpret and put to new uses themes and symbols from another culture.

Persian influence in northern India before the sultanate. The later Ghaznavids, though Qutubuddin aibak wife sexual dysfunction Turks, were wholly assimilated to Persian culture; Persian was the language of the court, and Ghaznavid Lahore must have been a typical Persian city. Although the ethnic origins of the Ghurid, or Shansabanid, dynasty ca. In Bihar and Bengal the situation remained fluid: The earliest surviving buildings erected by the sultans of Delhi also reflect Persian antecedents see ii, below.

The Ghaznavid and Ghurid invaders constituted a well-defined ruling elite, reinforced by adventurers of all kinds from Qutubuddin aibak wife sexual dysfunction Muslim lands farther west.

Few of these early invaders would have brought wives with them, relying principally upon Indian slave women to provide for their domestic needs and bear them sons. Apart from soldiers, little is recorded about early migrants from Persia and the borderlands into what later became the Delhi sultanate.

It can be assumed, too, that among immigrants to northern India there were armorers, metalworkers, tentmakers and furnishers, manufacturers of cavalry gear, and other craftsmen, though none is mentioned in the sources.