Apomorphine brand names ApokynIxenseSpontaneUprima is a type of aporphine having activity as a non- selective dopamine agonist which activates both D 2 -like and, to a much lesser extent, D 1 -like receptors.
The compound is historically a morphine decomposition product made by boiling morphine with concentrated acid, hence the - morphine suffix. Apomorphine does not actually contain morphine or its skeleton, nor does it bind to opioid receptors. The apo - prefix relates to it being a morphine derivative "[comes] from morphine". Historically, apomorphine has been tried for a variety Apomorphine homosexuality statistics uses, including as a way to relieve anxiety and craving in alcoholics, an emetic to induce vomitingfor treating stereotypies repeated behaviour in farmyard animals, and more recently in treating erectile dysfunction.
Currently, apomorphine is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It is a potent emetic and should not be administered without an antiemetic such as domperidone. The emetic properties of apomorphine are exploited in veterinary medicine to induce therapeutic emesis in canines that have recently ingested toxic or "Apomorphine homosexuality statistics" substances. Apomorphine was also used as a private of heroin addictiona purpose for which it was championed by the author William S.
Burroughs and others claimed that it was a "metabolic regulator" with a restorative dimension to a damaged or dysfunctional dopaminergic system. There is more than enough anecdotal evidence to suggest that this offers a plausible route to an abstinence based Apomorphine homosexuality statistics however, no clinical trials have ever tested this hypothesis.
A recent study indicates that apomorphine might be a suitable marker for assessing central dopamine system alterations associated with chronic heroin consumption. Apomorphine is used in advanced Parkinson's disease intermittent hypomobility "off" episodeswhere a decreased response to an anti-Parkinson drug such as L -DOPA causes muscle stiffness and loss of muscle control.
It is used an average of three times a day. The main and Apomorphine homosexuality statistics contraindication to using apomorphine is the concurrent use of serotonin receptor antagonists ; combined, they cause severe drop in blood pressure and fainting. IV administration of apomorphine is highly discouraged, as it can crystallize in the veins and create a blood clot thrombus and block a pulmonary artery pulmonary embolism.
Nausea and vomiting are common side effects when first beginning therapy with apomorphine;  antiemetics such as trimethobenzamide or domperidone, dopamine antagonists,  are often used while first starting apomorphine. Other side effects include orthostatic hypotension and resultant fainting, sleepinessdizzinessrunny nosesweatingpalenessand flushing.
More serious side effects include dyskenesias especially when taking L -DOPAfluid accumulation in the limbs edemasuddenly falling asleep, confusion and hallucinationsincreased heart rate and heart palpitationsand persistent erections priaprism.
Apomorphine homosexuality statistics side effect has been exploited in studies Apomorphine homosexuality statistics to treat erectile dysfunction. Apomorphine's R-enantiomer is an agonist of both D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptorswith higher activity at D 2.
The D 4 receptor in particular is an important target in the signaling pathway, and is connected to several neurological disorders. Apomorphine improves motor function by activating dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal pathwaythe limbic systemthe hypothalamusand the pituitary gland.
Apomorphine also reduces the breakdown of dopamine in the brain though it inhibits its synthesis as well.
Apomorphine causes vomiting by acting on dopamine receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone of the medulla ; this activates the nearby vomiting center. Ten to twenty minutes after that, it reaches its peak concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Its lipophilic structure allows it to cross the blood—brain barrier. Apomorphine possesses affinity for the following receptors note that a higher K i indicates a lower affinity: The half-life is 30—60 minutes, and the effects of the injection last for up to 90 minutes.
Apomorphine has a catechol structure Apomorphine homosexuality statistics to that of dopamine. Several techniques Apomorphine homosexuality statistics for the creation of apomorphine from morphine. More recent techniques create the apomorphine in a similar fashion, by heating it in the presence of any acid that will promote the essential dehydration rearrangement of morphine-type alkaloidssuch as phosphoric acid. The method then deviates by including a water scavenger, which is essential to remove the water produced by the reaction that can react with the Apomorphine homosexuality statistics and lead to decreased yield.
The scavenger can be any reagent that will irreversibly react with water such as phthalic anhydride or titanium chloride.
The temperature required for the reaction varies based upon choice of acid and water scavenger. The yield of this reaction is much higher: The pharmacological effects "Apomorphine homosexuality statistics" the naturally-occurring analog aporphine in the blue lotus N.
It is also observed in Egyptian erotic cartoons, suggesting that they Apomorphine homosexuality statistics aware of its erectogenic properties. The modern medical history of apomorphine begins with its synthesis by Arppe in  from morphine and sulphuric acidalthough it was named sulphomorphide at first.
Matthiesen and Wright used hydrochloric acid instead of sulphuric acid in the process, naming the resulting compound apomorphine.
Initial interest in the compound was as an emetic, tested and confirmed safe by London doctor Samuel Gee and for the treatment of stereotypies in farmyard animals. Apomorphine was one of the earliest used pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. The Keeley Cure s to contained apomorphine, among other Apomorphine homosexuality statistics, but the first medical reports of its use for more than pure emesis come "Apomorphine homosexuality statistics" James Tompkins  and Charles Douglas.
In four minutes free emesis followed, rigidity gave way to relaxation, excitement to somnolence, and without further medication the patient, who before had been wild and delirious, went off into a quiet sleep. Accordingly it may be necessary to repeat the dose, and even to continue to give it twice or three times a day.
Such repeated doses, however, do not require to be so large: This method was not limited to Douglas; the Irish doctor Francis Hare, who worked in a sanatorium outside London from onwards, also used low-dose apomorphine as a treatment, describing it as "the most useful drug single drug in the therapeutics of inebriety". In the sanatorium it is used in three different sets of circumstances: He may be sober: The craving may return, however, and then it is necessary to repeat the injection, it may "Apomorphine homosexuality statistics" several times at intervals of a few hours.
These succeeding injections should be quite small, 3 to 6 min. Doses of this size are rarely emetic. There is little facial Apomorphine homosexuality statistics, a sensation as of the commencement of sea-sickness, perhaps a slight malaise with a sudden subsidence of the craving for alcohol, followed by a light and short doze.